A heart surgery can be needed for many different reasons. It often helps to correct some problems that cannot be eliminated with conservative treatment. Among the most common heart surgeries are:
- Coronary artery bypass grafting;
- Restoration or replacement of a worn-out heart valve;
- Recovery in congenital heart diseases;
- Implantation of devices to control the heartbeat;
- Replacement of the damaged heart with a donor organ.
Open heart surgery
Although this approach has become more popular with the development of minimally invasive cardiovascular surgery, open traditional surgery is still used in most cases.
It is recommended when the treatment includes a comprehensive restoration of the coronary vessels, valves, cavities and other parts of the heart in one operation.
The procedure is performed under general anesthesia and takes about 5-6 hours. First, the surgeon makes a long incision (15-20 cm) in the patient’s chest to gain access to the heart.
After that, a cardiopulmonary resuscitation apparatus is connected, which supplies the body with oxygen and nutrients, and the heart stops for a while.
Traditionally, it is believed that surgery is best done when the heart is not beating or supplied with blood. It is possible to stop the heart without harming the topic with the help of a heart-lung machine (extrapulmonary circulation
During the procedure, a cardiopulmonary resuscitation machine is connected, and doctors administer hypothermia to slow down the metabolic processes in the body.
Normally, the brain dies in 3-4 minutes without a blood supply, but at a body temperature of 28 ° C to 32 ° C, it can survive during surgery.
After performing all the necessary manipulations, such as creating an implant around the damaged artery, repairing valves, or treating congenital anomalies, the heart surgeon closes the chest with a wire that remains inside the body and sutures the incision. The patient is sent to the intensive care unit.
Recovery after surgery
After the operation, the patient spends a day (depending on his condition) in the intensive care unit, connected to tubes and wires of equipment that supports the heart and organ functions.
A breathing tube is also used: it is necessary because the lungs may not function well in the first hours after surgery.
A team of highly trained nurses of cardiology hospital in India cares for the patient and helps him to maintain physical activity as soon as possible. In the intensive care unit, the following activities are carried out:
- Intravenous medication administration;
- Seam care;
- Maintaining warmth and normal body temperature in the patient;
- Changing the posture of the patient’s body.
After discharge from the intensive care unit, the patient remains in the hospital and recovers step by step:
- Tries to get out of bed.
- Goes through breathing therapy.
- Drinks enough water and food.
- He walks along the corridors.
- Goes through the removal of stitches.
- Is getting stronger.
- Leaves the hospital.
At home, the patient should follow the recommendations of their therapist and maintain an optimal regimen for a quick recovery: use prescribed medication, get enough sleep, stop caffeine, do not smoke, control blood pressure, follow a healthy diet, and maintain moderate physical activity. Full recovery can take about six months.
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